The QUEEN, as Sovereign Head of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem…

The QUEEN, as Sovereign Head of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, has directed that the appointment of Peter Grant RODDA to be a Serving Brother/Member of the said Order, dated 8 August 1984, shall be cancelled and annulled and that his name shall be erased from the Roll of the said Order. (Amazing the authority of the Queen)

The QUEEN has been graciously pleased to sanction the following Promotions in, and Appointments to, the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem:
The Most Reverend Archbishop Emeritius Desmond TUTU
Victor Kennicott ATKINS Jr
Captain (Retired) Winston Giles CHURCHILL
Joseph MacDonald DEALEY Jr
Andrew Martin LATHAM
Colonel John Robert MacKENZIE MBE TD
Andrew Hayward NEIS
Colonel (Retired) Howell Crawford SASSER Sr
The Honourable Gordon James WHITIN
AnnLuedinghaus, Mrs CASE
Elizabeth McLean, Mrs HYERS
Ms Polly Hohlt JONES
Eileen Mary, Mrs YAGO
Theodore Wayne BROWN
Dr Glenn Miller DAVIS
Dr Charles Edward Francis DRAKE
The Reverend Dr Christopher Ashley FORD
Lieutenant Colonel (Retd) Patrick Roy HOLCROFT LVO OBE
Richard Allen HUNNINGS
Theodore Howard JACOBSEN
Kenneth Floyd KOEN
Jaeame I KOYIL
John Daniel PEEBLES
Dr James Steven REIBEL
Thomas Franz ROEDL
The Right Reverend Stacy Fred SAULS
William Robert VAN LUVEN
Dr Anne Louise COLEMAN
Miss Melanie Sue ETHRIDGE
Brantley Carter Bolling, Mrs KNOWLES II
Ms Dianne Alley ROBINSON
Joan Margaret Lively, Mrs STANSBURY
Susan Schiffer, Mrs STAUTBERG
The Reverend Dr Cecily Johnson TITCOMB
Dr Charles Emmet BAGWELL
Dr Stuart Furtwangler BALL
The Reverend Dr David George COULTER CB QHC
Mortimer Finlay CURRAN
The Right Reverend Clifton DANIEL III
The Very Reverend Dennis Lee DAY
The Right Reverend Andrew Marion Lenow DIETSCHE
Robert Martin DONALDSON
Alexander Fraser DRYBURGH
The Reverend James Robert HARLAN
Christian Barrett HENSLEY
Donald Lee KLEIN Jr
Blucher Blair LINES
Donald Scott LURDING
Dr George Hutcheson MARTINDALE Sr
Canon Nigel Patrick NICHOLSON DL
Nicholas Lithgow PAUL
Ronald Carroll PLUNKETT
David Edmund Ian PYOTT
Lieutenant Colonel (Retired) Jeffrey Andrew RITSICK
The Honorable Gerald Wesley SCOTT
John Thomas SPIKE Jon Malcolm SWENSON
Jeremy Alexander WOAN
Tiong Wee David YEO
Dr Cherylee June BERRY MBE
Susan Wright, Mrs BRENNAN
Torrey Van Antwerp, Mrs DEKEYSER
Jane Adams, Mrs FERRIL III
Margaret Gaskins, Mrs GILL
Ms Kent Elizabeth GLADSTONE
Jane Piper, Mrs GLEASON
Cynthia Satterwhite, Mrs JARBOE
Susan Goldwater, Mrs KEENAN
Mary, Mrs KING
The Reverend Ruth Bradbury LAMONTE
Nicola, Mrs MOTH
Elizabeth Hanson LeViness, Mrs NOTTINGHAM
Elizabeth Ann, Mrs PAUL
Sheila, Mrs TREACY
Marilyn Seely, Mrs VAN STORY
The Reverend James Patrick ADAMS
The Honorable Robert Brown ADERHOLT
Mohammad Arif Bin ALI
Dr Inderjit Singh ANAND
George Patterson APPERSON III
David Gifford ARSCOTT
The Reverend Paul Andrew BAGOTT
Stuart David BAKER
The Reverend Stuart Alan BATES
Richard Foulke BEIRNE IV
Peter Bernard BENNETT
William Charles BLIND Jr
Roger Blane BORGELT
John Glenna Bryson BOYD
Stephen Charles BROOKS
Raymond Ramsdell BUNKER
Timothy Knowlton CARPENTER
Dr William Richard CASHION Jr
Hin Kei Enoch CHAN
Marcus Holman CHESNUTT
Dr George CIOFFI
Brigadier General (Retired) Carter Weldon CLARKE Jr
The Reverend Timothy Alexander Robertson COLE
Kevin James Brady DAVIS
Butler Carson DERRICK III
David Alan DISI
Herbert Laurence FRITZ Jr
Stephen Wilhelm GAUSTER-FILEK
Joseph Thomas GREEN
William Robert GRIFFITH
Robert Phyfer HALL II
Charles Douglas HARVEY
John Calvin HAYES IV
Dr Fraser Cummins HENDERSON Sr
Raymond HINSON
The Very Reverend Randolph Marshall HOLLERITH
Gee Yen HUNG
The Reverend Andrew David HYBL
William George JAMES-HIRST
Ethan Whitcomb JOHNSON
James Alexander KENNEDY
Colonel (Retired) Kenneth Andrew KRAFT
Andrew Astwood KRYZAK
Lieutenant Colonel Dr Simon Paul LeCLERC
Kok Seng William LEE Dennis Anthony LOCK
Major Michael Joseph MARIN
The Reverend Canon Brooks Kevin MASON
David Andrew MATTHEWS
Bernard MATZ
Vaughan Watkins MCRAE
Stephen Warren MILES
Harris Evan MILLIGAN Jr
Lieutenant James Gregory MOXNESS II
Arthur Phillips NAZRO III
George Thomas NOVINGER
Matthew Martin OGBURN
Michael O’TOOLE
Daniel Steven PEÑA Jr
Stephen David PERROTT
The Reverend Dr John Peter PHAM
Dr Kasey Lee PIERSON
Michael Forster PISAPIA
Dr Martin Param PONNIAH
Anthony John PUGH
Blasko Cedomir RISTIC
John Rowland ROBINSON
Bruce Clifford ROSS-LARSON
Mark Lynford SABERTON
The Reverend Canon Dr Robert Alan SCHIESLER
Clay Greenwood Iverdale SMALL
Lloyd Gregory STANFORD
Ernest Franklin STEINER
The Reverend Canon John Harvey TAYLOR
Chu Yaw TEH
Sudip Dilip THAKAR
Thoong Leong THONG
Daniel Egan TOMAI
James David WARREN Jr
Michael William WEISBROD
Christopher WHITE
Dr Adrian Charles WHITWOOD BEM
Christopher Robin WOLF
Richard Randolph WOODS
Matthew Tyler YATES
Wafa, Mrs ABDIN
Ann Roscopf, Mrs ALLEN
Ms Robin Lynn ALLEN
Chandana, Mrs ANAND
The Reverend Susan Gallagher ASTARITA
Ms Irene Georgia ATHANS
Alixandra Fitzwilliam-Tate Collins, Mrs BAKER
Melinda Joan, Mrs BARBEE
Mary Ellen, Mrs BORGELT
Felicia Jane BROWN
Cynthia Lynn, Mrs CASHION
Mariana Poutiatine, Mrs COTTEN
Delphine Helen, Mrs DAFT
Marjorie Sellers, Mrs DAY
Edith Baird, Mrs EGLIN
Hui Shang ER
Dr Joyce Marie GATTAS
Julia Dayton, Mrs HANSEN
Elizabeth Ann, Mrs HARVEY
Cassandra Hyland, Mrs HENDERSON
Miss Virginia Lynn HOPSON
Sharilyn Durdin, Mrs LAMPSON
Virginia Snyder, Mrs LEE
Ms Christine McCARRICK
Ms Candace Anne MACKENZIE
Ms Lisa Anne MCCLUNG
The Honorable Bonnie MCELVEEN-HUNTER
Nora Frances Stone, Mrs MCRAE
Marilyn Ross, Mrs MILES
Bettie McGowin, Mrs MILLER
Ms Mary Kathleen MYERS
Lucy Collins NAZRO
Gladys Filomena, Mrs NOVINGER
Li Yen ONG
Ms Nancy McDonald PARIS
Donna Olney, Mrs PASSMORE
Ms Susan Austin Taylor PERKINS
Alice Douglas, Mrs PIDGEON
Lynn Tryon, Mrs POHANKA
Barbara Gahan, Mrs ROBINSON
Miss Emma Kate Camilla SHEPPARD
Janice Elaine Siever, Mrs SMULCER
Sandra Feagan, Mrs STERN
Mary Leslie Casson, Mrs STEVENS
Laura May Thalmann, Mrs WARNER
Toni Joy, Mrs WHITEING
Nancy Marie Ranney, Mrs WOLCOTT
Maureen Rose, Mrs WOODWARD
The QUEEN, as Sovereign Head of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, has directed that the appointment of Peter Grant RODDA to be a Serving Brother/Member of the said Order, dated 8 August 1984, shall be cancelled and annulled and that his name shall be erased from the Roll of the said Order.

Should the word “Lamb” be replaced with the word “Ram”

Rev 6:1 And I saw that the Lamb opened one of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four living beings saying, like a voice of thunder, “Come.”
Rev 6:2 And behold, a white horse. And he who sat on it had a bow; and a crown was given to him, and he went out conquering, and to conquer.
Rev 6:3 And when He opened the second seal, I heard the second living being saying, “Come!”
Rev 6:4 Another horse went out, fiery red, and it was granted to him that sat on it to take peace from the earth, so that they might kill each other; and there was given to him a great sword.
Rev 6:5 And when He opened the third seal, I heard the third living being say, “Come.” And behold, a black horse, and he who sat on it had a pair of scales in his hand.

Rev 6:6 And I heard a voice in the midst of the four living beings, saying, “A quart of wheat for a denarius, and three quarts of barley for a denarius; but do not harm the oil and the wine.”
Rev 6:7 And when He opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living being saying, “Come.”
Rev 6:8 And behold, a pale horse, and he who sat on it was named Death, and Hades was following him. And authority was given to him over a fourth of the earth, to kill with the sword, and with famine, and with death, and by the wild beasts of the earth.
Rev 6:9 And when He opened the fifth seal, I saw underneath the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held.
Rev 6:10 And they cried with a loud voice, saying, “How long, O Lord, holy and true, do You not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth?”
Rev 6:11 Then a long white robe was given to them, and it was said to them that they should rest yet a while, until also their fellow servants and their brothers, who were about to be killed as also they were, should complete their course.
Rev 6:12 And I saw when He opened the sixth seal, that there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the whole moon became like blood.
Rev 6:13 And the stars of heaven fell to the earth, like a fig tree casting its untimely figs, being shaken by a mighty wind.
Rev 6:14 Then the sky was split like a scroll being rolled up, and every mountain and island were removed out of their places.
Rev 6:15

Rev 6:16 And they said to the mountains and crags, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of Him that sits on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb!
Rev 6:17 For the great day of His wrath has come, and who shall be able to stand?”

Is “sonar”or “sonic” the glue that connects all living things together?

Sonar, short for Sound Navigation and Ranging, is helpful for exploring and mapping the ocean because sound waves travel farther in the water than do radar and light waves. NOAA scientists primarily use sonar to develop nautical charts, find underwater hazards to navigation, search for and map objects on the seafloor such as shipwrecks, and map the seafloor itself. There are two types of sonar—active and passive.

If you have not read this Book, you are missing…

The words of the blessing of…

with which he blesses the elect and righteous, who will be living in the day of tribulation …when?

When all the wicked and godless are to be removed.  The story continues, Enoch …a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a future generation. Concerning the

He continues, concerning the elect?   When?
Answer: When all the wicked and godless will be removed from His Earth.

And he? Who is he?
He begins the story and says, –
Enoch …a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed him.

From the angels, I heard, and from them, I understood as I saw,
Not for this generation, but for a remote one which is in the future.

Concerning the elect. Here is the story concerning this future group of humans.

The Holy Great One will come out of the place in the Universe where He lives.

The eternal God will live upon the earth, on Mount Sinai,
And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.

All will be smitten with fear and the Watchers will shudder,
And great fear and trembling will seize them all over the earth.

High mountains will be agitated, the high hills will be made low, melt like wax before the flame.
What flame?

Earth will be torn by their division, every human living on earth that is ungodly and not righteous will die. There will be a judgment on all humans.

With the righteous, He will create peace.

God will protect the elect. He will show them mercy. All the righteous belong to God. He will prosper them so they will be a blessing.
They will all be blessed.

God will help them all, the light will appear to them, He will make peace with them.

God will not come back to Earth alone as He did in Eashoa M’sheekha. God will come back to Earth with ten thousand holy ones.
Reason: Eashoa is coming back to Earth to execute judgment upon all, and to destroy all the ungodly:

To convince all humans the works of their ungodliness which they have committed, of all the hard things they have spoken against Him.

Before we move on to Chapter Two, may we have an open discussion about this radical foretelling of the Second Coming of Eashoa M’sheekha back to Earth.

Whoever this writer is writing about was shown to him in a vision “The Second Coming of Eashoa M’sheekha”, 3500 years before Eashoa was ever conceived and came out of Mary’s human womb.

Is that amazing, or what?

First, tell me who was the writer talking about? What prophet from Judah do you think he is writing about in this story?

The Kurds are the largest group of nomadic people in the world – remained stateless since the beginning of time.

WRITTEN BY: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica
See Article History

Badr Khānī Jāladat
Mustafa al-Barzani
Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK)
Kurd, member of an ethnic and linguistic group living in the Taurus Mountains of eastern Anatolia, the Zagros Mountains of western Iran, portions of northern Iraq, Syria, and Armenia, and other adjacent areas. Most of the Kurds live in contiguous areas of Iran, Iraq, and Turkey—a somewhat loosely defined geographic region generally referred to as Kurdistan (“Land of the Kurds”). The name has different connotations in Iran and Iraq, which officially recognize internal entities by this name: Iran’s northwestern province of Kordestān and Iraq’s Kurdish autonomous region. A sizable noncontiguous Kurdish population also exists in the Khorāsān region, situated in Iran’s northeast.

Areas of Kurdish settlement in Southwest Asia.
An Iraqi Kurdish woman working in a folk museum in Irbīl, Iraq, winding lamb’s wool onto a spool to make handwoven carpets.
Areas of Kurdish settlement in Southwest Asia.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
An Iraqi Kurdish woman working in a folk museum in Irbīl, Iraq, winding lamb’s wool onto a …
Ali Al-Saadi—AFP/Getty Images
The Kurdish Language And Traditional Way Of Life

The Kurdish language is a West Iranian language related to Persian and Pashto. The Kurds are thought to number from 25 million to 30 million, including communities in Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Syria, and Europe, but sources for this information differ widely because of differing criteria of ethnicity, religion, and language; statistics may also be manipulated for political purposes.

The traditional Kurdish way of life was nomadic, revolving around sheep and goat herding throughout the Mesopotamian plains and the highlands of Turkey and Iran. Most Kurds practiced only marginal agriculture. The enforcement of national boundaries beginning after World War I (1914–18) impeded the seasonal migrations of the flocks, forcing most of the Kurds to abandon their traditional ways for village life and settled farming; others entered nontraditional employment.

A Kurdish goatherd in Yüksekova, Turkey.
A Kurdish goatherd in Yüksekova, Turkey.
Rupert Conant—Impact Photos/Imagestate

The prehistory of the Kurds is poorly known, but their ancestors seem to have inhabited the same upland region for millennia. The records of the early empires of Mesopotamia contain frequent references to mountain tribes with names resembling “Kurd.” The Kardouchoi whom the Greek historian Xenophon speaks of in Anabasis (they attacked the “Ten Thousand” near modern Zākhū, Iraq, in 401 bce) may have been Kurds, but some scholars dispute this claim. The name Kurd can be dated with certainty to the time of the tribes’ conversion to Islam in the 7th century ce. Most Kurds are Sunni Muslims, and among them are many who practice Sufism and other mystical sects.

Iraqi Kurds celebrating Nōrūz (a New Year festival often associated with Zoroastrianism), northern Iraq.
Iraqi Kurds celebrating Nōrūz (a New Year festival often associated with …
Safin Hamed—AFP/Getty Images

Despite their long-standing occupation of a particular region of the world, the Kurds never achieved nation-state status. Their reputation for military prowess has made them much in demand as mercenaries in many armies. The sultan Saladin, best known to the Western world for exploits in the Crusades, epitomizes the Kurdish military reputation.
Social Organization

The principal unit in traditional Kurdish society was the tribe, typically led by a sheikh or an aga, whose rule was firm. Tribal identification and the sheikh’s authority are still felt, though to a lesser degree, in the large urban areas. Detribalization proceeded intermittently as Kurdish culture became urbanized and was nominally assimilated into several nations.

Kurds from the Jaff tribe cheering as they watch a horse race during the annual festival of their tribe, south of Al-Sulaymāniyyah, Iraq.
Kurds from the Jaff tribe cheering as they watch a horse race during the annual festival of their …
Shawan Mohammed—AFP/Getty Images
In traditional Kurdish society, marriage was generally endogamous. In nonurban areas, males usually marry at age 20 and females at age 12. Households typically consist of father, mother, and children. Polygamy, permitted by Islamic law, is sometimes practiced, although it is forbidden by civil law in Turkey. The strength of the extended family’s ties to the tribe varies with the way of life. Kurdish women—who traditionally have been more active in public life than Turkish, Arab, and Iranian women—as well as Kurdish men, have taken advantage of urban educational and employment opportunities, especially in prerevolutionary Iran.
The Dream Of Autonomy

The Procession of the Trojan Horse into Troy from Two Sketches Depicting the Trojan Horse, oil on canvas by Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo, c. 1760; in the National Gallery, London. Greek and Roman Literature: Fact or Fiction?
Kurdish nationalism came about through the conjunction of a variety of factors, including the British introduction of the concept of private property, the partition of regions of Kurdish settlement by modern neighbouring states, and the influence of British, U.S., and Soviet interests in the Persian Gulf region. These factors and others combined with the flowering of a nationalist movement among a very small minority of urban, intellectual Kurds.


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The first Kurdish newspaper appeared in 1897 and was published at intervals until 1902. It was revived at Istanbul in 1908 (when the first Kurdish political club, with an affiliated cultural society, was also founded) and again in Cairo during World War I. The Treaty of Sèvres, drawn up in 1920, provided for an autonomous Kurdistan but was never ratified; the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), which replaced the Treaty of Sèvres, made no mention of Kurdistan or of the Kurds. Thus the opportunity to unify the Kurds in a nation of their own was lost. Indeed, Kurdistan after the war was more fragmented than before, and various separatist movements arose among Kurdish groups.
Kurds In Turkey

The Kurds of Turkey received unsympathetic treatment at the hands of the government, which tried to deprive them of their Kurdish identity by designating them “Mountain Turks,” by outlawing the Kurdish language (or representing it as a dialect of Turkish), and by forbidding them to wear distinctive Kurdish dress in or near the important administrative cities. The Turkish government suppressed Kurdish political agitation in the eastern provinces and encouraged the migration of Kurds to the urbanized western portion of Turkey, thus diluting the concentration of Kurdish population in the uplands. Periodic rebellions occurred, and in 1978 Abdullah Öcalan formed the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (known by its Kurdish acronym, PKK), a Marxist organization dedicated to creating an independent Kurdistan. Operating mainly from eastern Anatolia, PKK fighters engaged in guerrilla operations against government installations and perpetrated frequent acts of terrorism. PKK attacks and government reprisals led to a state of virtual war in eastern Turkey during the 1980s and ’90s. Following Öcalan’s capture in 1999, PKK activities were sharply curtailed for several years before the party resumed guerilla activities in 2004. In 2002, under pressure from the European Union (in which Turkey sought membership), the government legalized broadcasts and education in the Kurdish language. Turkey continued to mount military operations against the PKK, including incursions into northern Iraq.

Abdullah Öcalan at a Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) training camp in Lebanon, 1992.
Abdullah Öcalan at a Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) training camp in Lebanon, 1992.
Ramzi Haidar—AFP/Getty Images
Kurds In Iran And Iraq


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Kurds also felt strong assimilationist pressure from the national government in Iran and endured religious persecution by that country’s Shīʿite Muslim majority. Shortly after World War II (1939–45), the Soviet Union backed the establishment of an independent country around the largely Kurdish city of Mahābād, in northwestern Iran. The so-called Republic of Mahābād collapsed after Soviet withdrawal in 1946, but about that same time the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI) was established. Thereafter, the KDPI engaged in low-level hostilities with the Iranian government into the 21st century.

Although the pressure for Kurds to assimilate was less intense in Iraq (where the Kurdish language and culture have been freely practiced), government repression has been the most brutal. Short-lived armed rebellions occurred in Iraq in 1931–32 and 1944–45, and a low-level armed insurgency took place throughout the 1960s under the command of Muṣṭafā al-Barzānī, leader of the Iraqi Kurdish Democratic Party (IKDP), who had been an officer of the Republic of Mahābād. A failed peace accord with the Iraqi government led to another outbreak of fighting in 1975, but an agreement between Iraq and Iran—which had been supporting Kurdish efforts—later that year led to a collapse of Kurdish resistance. Thousands of Kurds fled to Iran and Turkey. Low-intensity fighting followed. In the late 1970s, Iraq’s Baʿth Party instituted a policy of settling Iraqi Arabs in areas with Kurdish majorities—particularly around the oil-rich city of Kirkūk—and uprooting Kurds from those same regions. This policy accelerated in the 1980s as large numbers of Kurds were forcibly relocated, particularly from areas along the Iranian border where Iraqi authorities suspected Kurds were aiding Iranian forces during the Iran-Iraq War (1980–88). What followed was one of the most brutal episodes in Kurdish history. In a series of operations between March and August 1988, code-named Anfal (Arabic: “Spoils”), Iraqi forces sought to quell Kurdish resistance; the Iraqis used large quantities of chemical weapons on Kurdish civilians. Although technically it was not part of Anfal, one of the largest chemical attacks during that period took place on March 16 in and around the village of Ḥalabjah, when Iraqi troops killed as many as 5,000 Kurds with mustard gas and nerve agent. Despite these attacks, Kurds again rebelled following Iraq’s defeat in the Persian Gulf War (1990–91) but were again brutally suppressed—sparking another mass exodus.

With the help of the United States, however, the Kurds were able to establish a “safe haven” that included most areas of Kurdish settlement in northern Iraq, where the IKDP and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan—a faction that split from the IKDP in 1975—created an autonomous civil authority that was, for the most part, free from interference by the Iraqi government. The Kurds were particularly successful in that country’s 2005 elections, held following the fall of Saddam Hussein and the Baʿth Party in 2003, and in mid-2005 the first session of the Kurdish parliament was convened in Irbīl.

Violence and instability in Iraq following the removal of Saddam Hussein and in Syria following the outbreak of civil war in 2011 threatened the security of Kurdish communities but also offered new opportunities for Kurds to advance their claims to autonomy. The primary threat to Kurds was the extremist Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), which captured and occupied territory adjacent to Kurdish areas in Iraq and Syria in 2013. Kurdish fighters in northern Syria entered into heavy fighting with ISIL and quickly proved to be some of the most effective ground forces against the group. Meanwhile, Iraqi Kurdish forces participated in a multinational campaign to expel ISIL from its strongholds in northern and western Iraq.

Picking up the pieces of the shattered olive industry near Mosul, Iraq, after Kurdish forces dislodged the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in 2016.
Picking up the pieces of the shattered olive industry near Mosul, Iraq, after Kurdish forces …
© CCTV America (A Britannica Publishing Partner)
During mid-September 2014 some 138,000 Kurdish Syrians fled into Turkey to take refuge against the assault by ISIL/ISIS on their villages; by November Turkey was playing host to 1.1 million Syrian war refugees.

On Dec.ember 29, 2011, near the southeastern Turkish village of Ortasu, people gaze at some of the 35 Kurdish civilians killed in a botched military air raid along the Iraq border the night before. The Turkish government admitted that the victims, who were identified as cigarette smugglers, had been mistaken for guerrillas.
Assorted References
chemical-weapon attacks (in chemical weapon: Weapons of mass destruction) (in ʿAlī Ḥasan al-Majīd)
Kurdistan Workers’ Party (in Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK))
opposition to Qāsim (in ʿAbd al-Karīm Qāsim)
jewelry styles (in jewelry: Islamic)
Adiyaman (in Adıyaman)
Al-Sulaymāniyyah (in Al-Sulaymāniyyah)
Damascus (in Damascus: People)
Iraq (in Iraq: Kurds) (in Iraq: Kurds)

Khamenei said “Iran must not fall for Washington’s “tricks”,

Sir Donald J. Trump

APR Updated August 04, 2017

TEHRAN: Iran said on Thursday that new US sanctions were a violation of its nuclear deal with world powers, piling pressure on President Hassan Rouhani as he starts his second term.

Rouhani vowed to keep up his efforts to end Iran’s isolation as he was sworn in by the Islamic republic’s supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei following his re-election in May.

But the ceremony came less than 24 hours after US President Donald Trump confirmed fresh sanctions against Iran.

Tehran says the new measures violate its 2015 deal with world powers that eased sanctions in exchange for curbs on its nuclear program, an agreement which Trump has repeatedly threatened to tear up.

“We believe that the nuclear deal has been violated and we will react appropriately,” deputy foreign minister Abbas Araghchi said on state television. “We will certainly not fall into the trap of US policy and Trump, and our reaction will be very carefully considered.”

“We will never accept isolation,” Rouhani said as he was sworn in in front of top political and military officials. “The nuclear deal is a sign of Iran’s goodwill on the international stage.”

Khamenei took a tougher line, saying Iran must not fall for Washington’s “tricks”. “The enemy’s hostility has made us more resistant,” the supreme leader said.

Iranian officials say they have prepared a 16-point document for how they will respond to the new sanctions, without giving details.

The new parliament will also vote on a bill boosting financial support to the Revolutionary Guards and the country’s missile program, which is targeted by the sanctions.

Ellie Geranmayeh, an Iran analyst with the European Council on Foreign Relations. “What will be absolutely critical is how the Europeans position themselves,” she said.

Britain, France, and Germany — who signed the deal alongside Russia, China, and the United States — remain firm backers of the agreement and are eagerly seeking to rebuild trade ties with Iran despite logistical problems caused by US sanctions.

French energy giant Total defied US pressure in July by signing a multi-billion-dollar gas deal with Iran.

“What Iranians are banking on at the moment, maybe overestimating, is that Europe will safeguard and build on the deal, and make it too politically costly for Trump to tear it up, or at least show Washington that if it walks away, it will be doing so alone,” said Geranmayeh.

But the Europeans do oppose Iran’s recent missile tests, with the French foreign ministry stating on Thursday that they “contradict” UN Resolution 2231 which oversees the nuclear deal, and “constitute a potential threat to stability and security in the region”. Everyone agrees that Iran has stuck to its central commitments regarding its nuclear program — including, reluctantly, the Trump administration.

But with Iran gaining the upper hand across the Middle East, through support for proxies in Syria, Lebanon,
and Iraq, US lawmakers appear determined to ratchet up tensions.

Published in Dawn, August 4th, 2017

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